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Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer has a high incidence rate and a long development period, both in its growth phase and in the progression of the illness. There are numerous risk factors which are known in the development of prostate cancer, including age, geographical area and race. There are also pre-cancerous lesions which can be diagnosed and analysed medically. Here are few most important steps you can take to prevent development of prostatic cancer.

Cut down on meat: Prostate cancer - a hormone-based disease - may be strongly linked to the consumption of meat which contains higher levels of hormone-disrupting chemicals. Try to eat meat no more than three times a week. It's best to eat white meat,
and lean cuts of red meat with equal portions of fish. Opt for hormone-free organic cuts where possible.

Don't fry food: Diets which are high in dairy products - milk, cheese, butter and
saturated animal fats - are also associated with a higher incidence of
prostate cancer. Avoid trans-fats, found in margarine, vegetable shortening, and
processed vegetable oils. If you are overweight, start a diet to reduce your risk.

Eat more fruit: Eat five to nine daily servings of organic fresh fruit and vegetables. Eat plenty of rich red tomato sauces.
Try to include soya in your diet - soya milk, tofu or soya yoghurts.
These are all high in antioxidants, which protect our cells against
the damaging effects of free radicals and can help prevent

Take vitamins: Recommended daily supplements for prostate protection include: Vitamin A, C, D and; Selenium and Flaxseed oil.

Stop smoking:
Giving up cigarettes will also protect your zinc levels.

Avoid using garden fertilisers and pesticides: Many these contain hormone-disrupting chemicals.

Exercise: Because very little research has been conducted into prostate cancer, the power of exercise, though known to be beneficial in boosting the body's immune system, is still largely uncertain.
What scientists do know is that exercise can prevent cancer because it enhances natural immunity by improving circulation, blood pressure and the efficiency and strength of the heart.
It also improves the antioxidant defences of our cells, which can help to counter the potentially damaging effects of oxidants, and which can lead to the genetic mutations that lie behind the development of cancers.

Treatment options for prostate cancer

1. active surveillance

a. Regular checkups are scheduled every 3 to 6 months.
b. Checkups usually include a digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and repeat prostate biopsies.

2. surgery

a. radical prostatectomy This is the most common surgery for removal of localized prostate cancer. It completely removes the prostate cancer.
b. pelvic lymph node dissection This is done at the time of radical prostatectomy to remove the lymph nodes in the pelvis. It is done for intermediate-risk and high-risk prostate cancer.
c. transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) TURP relieves symptoms of urinary obstruction caused by an enlarged prostate pressing on the urethra. This surgery is used in men with advanced prostate cancer or men who are not healthy enough for radical prostatectomy. This surgery does not cure the cancer.

3. radiation therapy

a. The types of radiation therapy for prostate cancer are:

i. external beam radiation
ii. brachytherapy (internal radiation therapy)

b. Radiation therapy is usually combined with hormonal therapy in men who have high-risk prostate cancer.
c. Hormonal therapy may be given for a period of time before and after the radiation therapy.

4. hormonal therapy

a. Hormonal therapy for prostate cancer may include:

i. luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists
ii. luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) antagonists
iii. anti-androgens (block effects of androgens in the tissue)
iv. removal of the testicles (orchiectomy)

b. Hormonal therapy may be combined with radiation therapy in men who have high-risk prostate cancer.
c. Hormonal therapy may be given for a period of time before and after radiation therapy.
d. Hormonal therapy is sometimes given to men who have lymph node metastases found during radical prostatectomy. It is also given for prostate cancer that recurs after surgery or radiation.

5. Chemotherapy

a. Chemotherapy is used in the treatment of castrate resistant prostate cancer (also called hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

6. bisphosphonates
7. biological therapy
8. follow-up after treatment is finished

a. It is important to have regular follow-up visits, especially in the first 5 years after treatment.

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Content by: Dr. Mia W Marcus MD
I am Dr. Mia W Marcus MD, a medical specialist and writer.

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